Non-invasive Paternity Test during the Pregnancy for Mothers-to-be

DDC, the Ghana’s top DNA testing provider, has helped thousands of families find answers to their paternity questions and offers the most technologically-advanced non-invasive prenatal DNA paternity test for mothers-to-be who need results prior to their baby’s birth. We are excited to launch new Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Test from as early as 9th week of pregnancy from maternal blood, NO needless!

Paternity Test during Pregnancy

What do you need to do to have Prenatal Paternity Test done?

  1. contact DDC at 0540-990799 to discuss your case
  2. book sampling appointment
  3. fill the consent form & medical questionnaire
  4. have your samples collected (blood from the mother and saliva from the alleged father)
  5. wait approx. 2 weeks for result

This test Prenatal Paternity Test was validated and published in the prestigious international journal Obstetrics & Gynecology, http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Citation/2014/08000/Single_Nucleotide_Polymorphism_Based_Noninvasive.3.aspx.

DDC’s laboratory is one of the most accredited in the world known for its conservative approach regarding the amount of DNA levels required for providing reliable results. Unlike other prenatal paternity tests, NO postnatal (after the birth) paternity test is required for confirmation.

Contact DDC Ghana | Tel: 0540-990799, 0302-932267 | prenatal@dnacenter.com.gh

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The most reliable DNA testing services in Ghana

Why are our DNA testing services the most reliable in Ghana? Answer is very simple and straight forward. We employ only qualified staff, follow set good-practice procedures and use advanced DNA techniques and molecular methods.

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DDC Ghana staff attending directly to our clients/patients have university degree. Support staff dealing with sample processing is AABB trained on relationship sample handling and processing the chain-of-custody paperwork whenever required for legal or immigration purposes.

Our processing center in Accra and Kumasi operates in accordance with the most current AABB Relationship Testing Sample Collection policy. The process from sample collection to reporting the result includes multiple quality control checks to eliminate errors and/or avoid DNA fraud.

When it comes to the DNA testing itself, we test four (4) cheek swabs in two (2) separate testing groups of scientists and technicians. This is called DUAL PROCESS testing and is only available from DDC. In practice it means that Dual Process makes testing 100% Accurate and Reliable.

We, at DDC Ghana take pride in error-free testing, 100% confidential case handling and the most affordable pricing of DNA tests in the country.

DDC Ghana | Tel: 0540-990799 or 0302-932267 | contact us via email

Non-relationship DNA tests available in Ghana

11th May, 2018, DDC Ghana – We have been successfully offering our DNA testing services in Ghana since 2010. The most popular DNA tests are paternity tests and DNA tests for immigration and VISA applications of family members.

Ancestry DNA Test

African Ancestry DNA Test by DDC Ghana

This year we launched new range of DNA tests focused on health and ancestry offered by our facilities in Accra and Kumasi. Our Origin Ancestry DNA tests, Health DNA tests and Skincare DNA tests are the top of the range non-relationship DNA tests currently available globally and the only ones available in Ghana. All these tests are based on SNP detection and modern NGS technology. To have any of these test done, please contact our main office on 0302932267 or 0540990799 to book consultation or sampling. All necessary will be explained to you by experienced Case Manager.

GPS Origins® African Edition Test – is suitable for individuals of African or mixed descent and offers the deepest DNA-driven insights. Through this test you will gain access to your ancestors’ migration routes going as far back as 2,000 years, along with anthropological stories explaining the movement of your DNA over time.

Health DNA Tests – offers the knowledge of predispositions to many serious illnesses such as cancers, cardiac diseases or genetics of your healthy weight which gives you the option of early prevention and healthy live style.

Skincare DNA Test – provides detailed information about your skin genetics and how to take care of your skin based on your DNA. We will recommend specific-for-you topical skin products (cosmetics), vitamin supplements and/or specialist treatment.

We intend to grow and improve our offerings through 2018 to provide the most comprehensive portfolio of DNA diagnostic tests in Ghana at affordable cost and unprecedented quality. Contact us today via email at ddc@dnaceterghana.com or find out more at http://www.dnacenter.com.gh.

 

New DNA collection site in Kumasi

17th April 2018, Accra, Ghana – DDC/DNA Center Ghana; We are pleased to announce expansion of our DNA testing services to Ashanti Region with establishment of new DDC DNA collection site in Kumasi, at Anloga Junction.

New DDC DNA facility in Kumasi will serve as point of sample collection for peace-of-mind DNA tests, such as paternity, maternity, siblingship and grandparenatge, legal DNA tests for courts or other legal proceedings and for immigration and travel VISA cases. To book appointment or request more information, call our Kumasi HOT-line 0209-751178.

DDC at Yaa Taah Arcade in Kumasi

DDC Ghana, Anloga Junction, Kumasi

Our AABB trained and certified sample collectors will attend to you with professionalism and care. The sampling is discrete and straight forward. Our staff will explain and help you to fill the forms.

Just to put your mind at ease, there are no needles involved and sample collection is absolutely painless. Your final DNA test report is 100% accurate, reliable and legal test report also defendable at court of law in Ghana, USA, UK, EU and elsewhere.

In the case of one of tested people lives in or closer to Greater Accra, he/she can come for their sampling at our Accra facility or if he/she lives abroad (eg. USA, UK, Germany, etc..), they can have their samples collected in the country of residence without coming to Ghana.

Contact DDC Ghana:

Phone: 0209-751178

Email: kumasi@dnacenterghana.com

Why should YOU do “LEGAL” paternity test?

We always advise our clients to order “LEGAL” paternity test with chain-of-custody if there is any kind of family dispute or even slightest possibility of court/legal proceedings. Result of legal paternity DNA test is defensible in court of law and you do not need to do it ever again.

Legal paternity DNA test can be effectively used for following situations:

  1. Child Support
  2. Child Custody
  3. Immigration
  4. Birth Certificate
  5. Tax Forms
  6. Will
  7. Court Order
  8. Adoption
  9. Legal reasons

Your DNA samples will be tested at our accredited laboratory. Our laboratory technicians will carefully handle and prepare your DNA samples for processing. Every paternity test using cheek swabs is run two separate times in the lab and the results are triple-checked by our scientists. You never have to worry about a mix-up or wrong results. As soon as the results are verified, a legal document that is admissible in a court of law is mailed to you.

To undergo legal paternity test, you need to book an appointment, come with the child(ren), bring your original ID (identity documents) and one (1) passport size photo to the appointment. Our AABB trained and certified sample collection manager will help you fill-in all chain-of-custody documentation, will verify your identity and will collect your cheek swab samples.

Entire sampling process usually takes about 30-45 minutes in private consulting room at our facility in Accra. If you have any questions regarding the legal DNA test or chain-of-custody process, please call us on 0302-932267 or email us at info@dnacenterghana.com.

Modern Era of DNA Testing in Ghana

2000’s: SNP Arrays
In the early 2000’s, scientists were able to combine thousands of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) loci into a single test. SNPs are letter changes in the DNA that can be used as genetic markers for a variety of applications. SNP arrays are not commonly used for relationship testing but are used for a number of other genetic tests including; predisposition to genetic disease, health and wellness, and ancestry. DDC uses a large 800,000 SNP custom array for the GPS Origins™ test. The array contains AIMs (Ancestry Informative Markers), Y-Chromosome markers, mitochondrial markers, ancient DNA markers, and other markers useful for establishing more distant biological relationships like 4th or 5th cousins.
2010’s: Next Generation Sequencing
NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) or Massively Parallel Sequencing is the newest technique available for genetic analysis. This procedure generates a DNA sequence that is the linear arrangement of letters (A, T, C, and G) that occur in a DNA sample. Because the technique allows one to simultaneously start the sequencing at thousands of locations in the DNA that overlap, massive amounts of data can be generated and put back together with appropriate bioinformatics programs. It would be like taking book and cutting out sections of sentences then reassembling the book using a computer program to recognize overlapping sentence fragments.

DDC currently uses NGS for its Non-Invasive Prenatal Paternity Test (NIPP) that can determine the biological father of a fetus as early as 8 weeks gestation using a blood sample from the mother. Before NIPP testing, a chorionic villus sample (cvs) or amniocentesis sample was required from the mother. Both of these procedures are invasive and have a small risk of damage to the fetus. The NIPP test is safe for the fetus and detects circulating cell free fetal DNA (cfDNA) in the mother’s plasma and sequences the DNA to interrogate several thousand SNPs.

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Explaining History of Paternity Testing

1920s – Blood Typing

In the early 1900s, scientists identified 4 different blood types in humans – A, AB, B, and O – based on the presence of certain proteins called antigens in the blood. This blood typing system, called the ABO system, provided doctors with crucial information about their patients, allowing them to safely perform medical procedures, especially blood transfusions, by matching the blood types of patients and donors.

In the 1920s, scientists recognized that blood types were genetically inherited. A blood typing chart was developed to show the relationship between parents and their children.

Scientists realized that they could predict the blood type of a child based on his/her parents’ blood types. Conversely, if one of the parents’ blood types was unknown, the scientist could use the blood types of the child and the known parent to identify the missing parent’s blood type. In this way, scientists used blood typing to determine paternity or maternity of a child. However, because the information from blood typing is limited, it was difficult to definitively identify biological relationships.

For example, if a child had Type A blood and the child’s mother had Type AB blood, the child’s biological father could have any of the 4 blood types. This means that based on blood typing alone, no man could be excluded as the child’s father.

In the end, the power of exclusion (the power of a test to eliminate a certain percentage of the population from being biologically related to an individual) for blood testing is only 30%. Blood typing is not a useful technique for determining paternity.

1930s – Serological Testing

In the 1930s, scientists discovered other proteins in the blood that could be used for identifying humans. The Rh, Kell, and Duffy blood group systems, like the ABO system, were based on the presence of specific antigens in the blood. These antigens are also genetically inherited, proving useful in identifying possible biological relationships.

Through these serological tests, scientists could use the blood group systems of two parents to predict the possible blood group of their child. Scientists also applied serological testing to paternity cases, attempting to identify alleged fathers based on the blood groups of the child and mother. However, much like the use of the ABO system for paternity testing, serological tests are not conclusive in identifying biological parents. The power of exclusion for serological testing is only 40%, meaning this technique is not effective in identifying biological relationships.

1970s – HLA Testing

In the mid 1970s, scientists turned from blood typing to tissue typing. Scientists discovered the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), a protein prevalent in all of the body except the red blood cells. White blood cells in particular carry a high concentration of HLA. There are many different types of HLA, and these types vary between each person. Because of the high variability of HLA types between different people, HLA testing became a more powerful mode of paternity testing. The power of exclusion for HLA testing alone is 80% and coupled with blood typing and serological testing is close 90%.

Despite its more powerful ability to identify biological relationships, HLA testing is not an ideal technique. HLA testing requires a large blood sample that must be no older than a few days old. The collection process can be uncomfortable, making it dangerous for infants under the age of 6 months.

1980s – DNA Testing Using RFLP Technique

In the mid 1980s, a technique was developed called restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, pronounced “rif-lip”). This technique became the first genetic test using DNA. Like HLA and blood proteins, DNA is genetically inherited from both parents. However, sections of DNA are highly variable and more unique than HLA and blood proteins, and it is found in every part of the body. These attributes make DNA ideal for identifying biological relationships.

RFLP allows scientists to cut out the unique sections of the DNA, which is extracted from blood samples. For paternity testing, these unique sections of the parents and child are compared. Half of the child’s DNA should match the mother’s DNA, and half should match thefather’s DNA if they are biologically related.

Sometimes during this procedure, the child’s DNA will not appear to match either parent’s DNA, possibly caused bygenetic mutations. When this occurs, scientists will perform statistical analysis to determine the possibilities of mutation and biological relationship between family members.

Because RFLP is applied to DNA testing, this procedure yields highly conclusive results, typically with a power of exclusion higher than 99.99%. However, this technique is not performed frequently today because, like HLA testing, RFLP requires a large blood sample and a longer turnaround time.

1990s – DNA Testing Using PCR Technology

Although developed in the 1980s, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in DNA testing became the standard process for paternity testing in the 1990s.

PCR is a technique through which samples of DNA fragments are copied and replicated many times until billions of copies are made. Because of the power of PCR, very small samples of DNA from any part of the body can be used in a DNA test. Additionally, the process is quick.

By using PCR technology in DNA testing, paternity and other DNA tests can be performed much more easily and quickly. In a standard paternity test, DNA samples will be painlessly collected through buccal swabs from the mother, child, and alleged father. Then, the samples will be replicated through PCR and compared for similarities. Because half of the child’s DNA is inherited from the mother and the other half from the father, the child’s DNA should match portions of both biological parents.

Because DNA is being tested in this process, results yielded from a paternity test using PCR technology are often higher than 99.99%. This process has become the standard for biological identification, as it requires only a small sample from any person (even in prenatal cases), is highly conclusive, and provides results very quickly.

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